APA Style for Citations
The Basic Format for Journal Articles
Lastname , F. M. (xxxx). Title of article: Subtitle if necessary. Name of Journal, v(i), xxx-xxx.
- Invert all authors’ names (Last, F. M).
- Issue isn’t necessary if the volume uses continuous pagination.
- Article--Capitalize only the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns.
- Journal—Capitalize all words in the title of the journal, except words like the, and, of, in, etc.
1. One Author
Flaspohler, M. R. (2003). Information Literacy program assessment: One small college takes the plunge. Reference Services Review, 31(2), 129-140.
2. Two Authors
Huffman, M. L., & Cohen, P. N. (2004). Racial wage inequality: Job segregation and devaluation across U.S. labor markets. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 902-936.
3. Multiple Authors
Watson, M. W., Fisc her, K. W., Burdzovic Andreas, J., & Smith, K. W. (2004). Pathways to aggression in children and adolescents. Harvard Educational Review, 74(4), 404-430.
The Basic Format for Books:
Author, A. A. (xxxx). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
4. Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication.Washington,DC: American Psychological Association.
Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
5. O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123).New York: Springer.
APA Style Parenthetical Citation
Citing sources in the body of your paper
Sample paragraph 1
Berners-Lee, Hendler, and Lassila (2001) provide a deceptively simplistic description of the semantic web : “For the semantic web to function, computers must have access to structured collections of information and sets of inference rules that they can use to conduct automated reasoning” (p. 37). However, they note that this version of knowledge representation is still an unrealized possibility. A term that has grown up a long side the Semantic Web is “ontology.” Again, Berners-Lee and coauthors provide a simplistic definition: “An ontology is a document or file that formally defines the relations among terms” (p. 40). Bates (2002) balks at the overuse or misuse of the term “ontology.” She claims that what is now being called an ontology is in fact just a type of “classification, thesaurus, set of concept clusters, or whatever.” (p. 125). Despite the somewhat ill-chosen adoption of the word, the term “ontology” has stuck, and the need for ontologies to support the Semantic Web is well documented.
Sample paragraph 2
Before coding all data, a sample of three libraries was examined to inductively develop categories for coding. “The development of inductive categories allows researchers to link or ground these categories to the data from which they de rive” (Berg, 2001, p. 246). Eighteen categories were developed based on the types of links present in this preliminary sample. These categories, listed below, were meant to describe the “is-a” qualities of the linked areas.For more information:
The Online Writing Lab @ Purdue