Course Outline: Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry (CHM140)
COURSE TITLE: Introduction to General Organic and Biochemistry
COURSE CODE: CHM140
CONTACT HOURS: Lecture: 3 Laboratory: 2
CATALOG DESCRIPTION: A one-semester course with laboratory, designed primarily for Dental Hygiene students. Basic principles of general, organic and biochemistry are presented with emphasis on their applications of health science. Topics include measurement, states of matter, bonding theory, solutions, acids, buffers, and pH, and the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, sterols, amino acids and proteins, and a molecular approach to enzymatic action, digestion, metabolism and nutrition.
PREREQUSITE: High school chemistry, CHM 124, or equivalent. High School Sequential (Integrated) Math 1.
IMPORTANT NOTE: BOTH THEORY AND LABORATORY PARTS OF THIS COURSE MUST BE TAKEN CONCURRENTLY IN ORDER TO RECEIVE CREDIT.
REQUIRED FOR: Dental Hygiene
GENERAL EDUCATION: This course satisfies 4 credits of the Natural Sciences competency area of the General Education requirements at Farmingdale State College.
REQUIRED TEXT: Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry by Timberlake, 11th edition, Pearson Publishers.
Lab Manual: Introduction to General, Organic & Biochemistry, 1st edition, by Douglas Cody KMD Publishing
REQUIRED SUPPLIES: Safety glasses or goggles, laboratory coat or plastic apron. Other items as mandated by instructor.
FARMINGDALE STATE COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
CHM-140 Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
Course Profile and Outline
I. Course Description
A. Course Organization
1. Course overview and goals: The course considers selected topics in general, organic, and biochemistry as these areas relate to the health sciences. It is the intent of the course to impart to the student an understanding of the attitudes, methods, and theories by which chemistry attempts to explain basic chemical phenomena within the body.
2. Methodology: The course is structured to include 45 hours of lecture/recitation and 30 hours of laboratory experience. Utilization is made of in-house prepared materials, films, models, and demonstrations. Each lecture is designed to generate questions about how the concepts relate to the individual students and to health sciences.
II. Terminal Behavioral Objectives
The objectives given below are keyed to the lecture sections:
Section I - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1-1 List the metric units used to measure length, volume, and mass; list their abbreviations.
1-2 Given a prefix used in the metric system, write the decimal equivalent, and vice versa.
1-3 Given a set of metric units, place the units in order from smallest to largest.
1-4 Given a relationship between two units, write a conversion factor.
1-5 Use a conversion factor to change one unit to another.
1-6 Given a metric relationship, write a conversion factor.
1-7 Use a metric conversion factor to solve a metric conversion problem.
1-8 Use an English-metric conversion factor to convert between the English and metric systems.
1-9 Given two out of the three factors in the density-mass-volume relationship, calculate the one which is unknown.
1-10 Given the density of a sample, calculate the specific gravity, and vice versa.
Section II - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Identify a substance as a solid, liquid or gas in terms of physical criteria.
2. Define a pure substance and a mixture.
3. Given a temperature in oC, calculate the corresponding temperature in oF.
Section III - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Identify a substance as a solid, liquid or gas in terms of
(a) arrangement of particles,
(b) motion of particles,
(c) distance between particles,
(d) attractive forces between particles,
(e) shape of substance,
2. Calculate amount of energy necessary for conversions between the three states of matter.
3. Discuss the conversion between states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory.
4. Use the gas laws to solve for changes between any two of the variables P, V, T, and N, if the others are kept constant.
Section IV - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Balance a simple chemical equation.
2. Calculate the amount of product expected from a given amount of starting material in a given reaction.
3. Calculate the percentage composition of a compound.
Section V - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Given the name of an element, write its correct symbol.
2. Given any two of the following, atomic number, number of protons, mass number, symbol or name, number of neutrons, number of electrons - determine the remaining information.
3. Given atomic number and mass number for a set of atoms, indicate which contain isotopes of the same element.
4. Given an element, draw a diagram of an atom of that element including electron configuration.
5. Given a set of elements, use the number of electrons in their last shell to determine whether they would exhibit the same chemical behavior.
6. Predict the correct formula of an ionic compound formed between two specific elements.
7. Predict the correct formula of a covalent compound formed between two specific elements.
8. Find the molecular mass for a given formula.
9. Find the mass in grams for a mole of molecules or atoms.
10. Given the number of moles, find the mass in grams; given the number of grams, find the number of moles for a particular substance.
Section VI - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Write the nuclear symbols for alpha particle, beta particle gamma rays.
2. Balance a nuclear reaction.
3. Describe shielding necessary for protection from radiation.
4. Discuss health hazards of three types of radiation.
5. Given a radioactive sample of definite mass and its half-life, determine the quantity remaining after a definite elapsed time.
Section VII - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Define strong and weak electrolytes.
2. Calculate the percentage composition of a solution given a mass of solute in grams and a volume of liquid.
3. Calculate the molarity of a solution given a mass of solute in grams and a volume of liquid.
4. Describe the test for a colloid.
5. Describe how a compound will move when placed in a dialysis bag.
6. Explain the pressures affecting fluid movement in and out of a capillary system in tissue.
Section VIII - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Identify the properties of acids and bases.
2. Write an equation for the ionization of an acid or base in water.
3. Complete and balance a neutralization reaction.
4. Identify a compound as a weak or strong acid or base.
5. Arrange a set of pH valves from most acidic to least acidic.
6. Determine pH from hydrogen ion concentration and vice-versa.
7. Identify the components of a buffer and describe how a buffer prevents changes in pH in the body.
Section IX - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Given an incomplete structural formula, complete it by adding hydrogen atoms where needed.
2. Given the condensed structural formula, write the full structural formula and vice-versa.
3. Give the formula of a alkane, alkene, aldyne, cyclo alkane benzene.
4. Given the structural formula, name the compound by the IUPAC system and vice-versa.
5. Determine whether two structural formulas represent different compounds, the same compounds or isomers.
Section X - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Give the structure of a simple alcohol, aldehyde, ketone acid, este and ether, write the IUPAC name or a common name.
2. Classify an alcohol as primary, secondary or tertiary.
3. Complete a dehydration reaction for an alcohol by giving the reactants required or products expected.
4. Complete an oxidation reaction for an alcohol by giving the reactants required or products expected.
5. Complete the oxidation reactin for an aldenhyde by giving the reactants required or products expected.
6. Give the products for esterification, hydrolysis and saponification reactions.
Section XI - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Write the structural formula for glucose.
2. Predict the disaccharide formed given two reacting monosaccharides.
3. Predict whether a specific sugar is a reducing or non-reducing sugar, i.e., whether it will or will not give a positive Benedicts test.
4. Give the products of hydrolysis of maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch, cellulose.
5. Discuss the metabolism of sugars and starches in the body.
6. Predict whether or not a sugar can exist as a D or L isomer.
Section XII - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. For a given class of lipids, list the major components.
2. For a given fatty acid, indicate whether unsaturated or saturated.
3. Describe the test for unsaturation in a fat.
4. Write the structure and name for a fat formed from a given fatty acid and glycerol.
5. Discuss the metabolism of fats in the body and the consequence of faulty fat metabolism.
Section XIII - At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. List the functions of proteins in the body.
2. Give the name of a simple amino acid, write its structure.
3. Write the structure of an amino acid in its zwitterion form.
4. Given a dipeptide, determine the amino acids formed on hydrolysis.
5. List four ways a protein can be denatured.
6. List two color reactions for proteins.
7. List four types of bonds that hold protein structures together.
The outline below reflects the experience that a substantial majority of students, entering the course, come with a minimum two-year hiatus since their last chemistry course.
A. Measurement - a review: The metric system, dimensional analysis, density and clinical tests.
B. Atomic theory - elements, periodicity, subatomic particles, electronic configuration, metals and non-metals.
C. Nuclear Chemistry - symbols, radiation, cell damage, detection, protection, reactions, and half-lives.
D. Bonding - valence electrons, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, ionic and molecular compounds, polyatomic ions, the mole and molecular weight.
E. Solutions and Colloids - properties, types, solubility, concentration and dilutions.
F. Acids - Bases and pH - definitions, neutralization strength, pH measurements and buffers.
G. Hydrocarbons - nomenclature, structural formulae, isomers, a survey of functional groups, and reactions.
H. Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones - nomenclature, classes, and reactions.
I. Carbohydrates - classes, optical, isomers, cleavage, tests for, and digestion.
J. Lipids - nomenclature, esters, classes, tests for, and digestion.
K. Proteins - functions, types, essential amino acids, and tests for.
L. Enzymes - components, catalytic action, lock and key theory, naming, inhibition, and as a diagnostic tool.
CHM-140 Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
TEXT: Laboratory Manual: Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
by Doug S. Cody
Session Experiment Pages
1 Check-In, Laboratory Safety 1-14
2 Density 15-22
3 Tests for Cations and Anions 23-32
4 Osmosis and Dialysis 33-42
5 Antacids, H-2 Blockers and Indigestion 53-60
6 Titration of Vinegar 43-52
7 Esterification: Preparation of Aspirin 61-70
8 Characteristics of Organic Compounds 71-82
9 Characteristics of Carbohydrates 83-92
10 Paper Chromatography of Amino Acids 93-104
10 Triglycerides and Cholesterol 105-114
11 Color Tests for Peptides and Proteins 115-124
12 Digestion of Fats 125-130
12 Digestion of Carbohydrates 131-138
13 DNA Extraction 139-144
14 Clean-Up and Check Out