Course Outline: General Chemistry Principles II (CHM153)
NOTE on Laboratory: Both Lecture and Laboratory must be taken simultaneously; separate grades will not be given for either. Students must pass the laboratory section to receive a passing grade in the entire course.
Semesters Offered: Fall, Spring, & Summer
Prerequisites: General Chemistry Principles I (CHM 152) or equivalent.
Catalog Course Description:
A continuation of General Chemistry Principles I, which includes laboratory. Topics include: solutions and their colligative properties, acids and bases, chemical equilibrium, ionic equilibrium, pH, buffers, titration curves, equilibrium of slightly soluble salts, common ion effect, complex ions and solubility, oxidation and reduction balancing, electrolysis, galvanic/voltaic cells, Nernst equation, Gibbs Free Energy and chemical kinetics.
Required Course for: 
Bioscience; Medical Laboratory Technology; Certificate for Health Professions 
Elective Course for: 

General Education: Course Texts: 
This course satisfies 4 credits of the Natural Sciences competency area of the General Education requirements at Farmingdale State College. 
Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter (Jespersen and Hyslop, 7^{th} Edition, Wiley)
CHM 152 Laboratory Manual for General Chemistry Principles (Giannotti, Mark, et al., FSC Chemistry Dept.)
Other Required Course Materials
Calculator, laboratory coat and safety goggles.
Course Learning Objectives:
I. Intermolecular Attractive Forces
Types of intermolecular attractive forces, influence of intermolecular attractive forces on physical properties, heating and cooling curves, phase diagrams
At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
 Describe the four types of intermolecular attractive forces
2. Rank the types of intermolecular attractive forces in order of increasing strength
3. Assign which type of intermolecular force is associated with a compound based on its structure
4. Compare relative magnitude of physical properties based on intermolecular attractive forces inherent in structure
5. Interpret heating and cooling curves, including the thermodynamic parameters associated with each step
6. Interpret phase diagrams based on pressure and temperature
II. Properties of Solutions, Mixtures of Substances at the Molecular Level
Heats of solutions, heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmosis, molarity, molality, % solution and mole %.
At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Solve solution concentration problems for the molarity, moles or mass given the appropriate ancillary information .
2. Solve for % solution on a mass as well as volume basis, interconvert between % and molarity.
3. Determine the mole fraction of solute and solvent, the extent of vapor pressure lowering on a liquid by the addition of solute.
4. Solve for extent of boiling point elevation as well as freezing point depression, and explain how this occurs.
5. Solve solution stoichiometry problems including limiting reagent type.
III: Kinetics The Study of Rates of Reactions
Factors affecting reaction rates, Rate Laws, Integrated Rate Laws, Reaction Rate Theories, Activation Energies, Experimental Rate Laws, Catalysis Reactions
At the end of this section students should be able to:
1. Know the factors that influence the rate of a reaction occurs.
2. Understand how rates of reactions are expressed and how they might be measured (instantaneous vs average).
3. Understand how the rate of reaction is related to the concentrations of the reactants; understand how to relate changes in concentrations of reactants/products with other reactants/products based on a balanced equation.
4. Write a rate law based on a balanced equation.
5. Use experimental data to determine reactant orders, rate constant, and overall rate law for a reaction.
6. Use integrated rate laws to predict the amount of substrate remaining based on the reaction order and the amount of time elapsed.
7. Understand the concept of halflife and how it is related to the rate constant; predict the amount of substrate left after n halflives have elapsed; predict the number of halflives required for a substrate to decay to a predetermined amount.
8. Understand the relationship between activation energy and rate constant; compare activation energies to determine the ratelimiting step.
9. Understand the relationship between rate and temperature; calculate the value of the rate constant based on activation energy and termperature.
IV. Chemical equilibrium: General Concepts
Dynamic Equilibrium, Kc, Kp, Le Chatelier'sPrinciple, Qc vs Kc.
At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
 Write the equilibrium expression for heterogeneous equilibrium and solve for K_{eq}.
 Manipulate equilibrium equations and their corresponding K_{eq} values
 Apply Le Chatelierâ€™s Principle to determine if reactant/product will increase, decrease or remain the same when a stress in the form of volume changes, pressure changes, concentration changes, temperature changes or addition of a catalyst is exerted on the original equilibrium.
 Calculate the numerical value for K_{eq} starting from equilibrium concentrations
 Solve equilibrium problems to determine the concentration of all species.
 Predict the direction of an experimental system towards reactants or products by comparing Qc with Kc
 Learn when to apply simplifying assumptions
 When simplifying assumptions fail, to be able to use either a quadratic solution or the method of successive approximations.
V. Acid and BasesA Second Look
AcidBase theory (BronstedLowry), Lewis acid theory, pH, pOH.
At the end of this section, the student should be able to:
 Write the definitions for Arrhenius, BronstedLowry and Lewis Acids and Bases.
 Identify AcidConjugate Base and BaseConjugate Acid Pairs.
 Identify the hydronium and hydroxide ions.
 Understand the inverse relationship between acidity/basicity; hydrogen ion concentration/hydroxide concentration; and pH/pOH.
 Calculate [H^{+}], [OH^{}], pH, and pOH of strong acid or strong base solutions
VI. Equilibria in solutions of Weak Acids and Bases
K_{a}, K_{b}, pK_{a}, pK_{b}, preparation of buffers, acidbase equilibria.
At the end of this section students should be able to:
 Understand the inverse relationship between an acid and its conjugate base or a base and its conjugate acid
 Calculate the value of pK_{a} or pK_{b} given K_{a} or K_{b} for a weak acid or base.
 Calculate the value of K_{b} of a conjugate base from the K_{a} of an acid; calculate the value of K_{a }of a conjugate acid from the Kb of a base
 Use K_{a} values to compare relative acidity of weak acids (and their conjugate bases); use K_{b} values to compare relative basicity of weak bases (and their conjugate acids)
 Predict the pH of weak acid or weak base solutions
 Predict the pH of solutions of ionic salts that result from acidbase neutralization reactions (hydrolysis of salts).
 Understand the concept of buffers and buffering capacity.
 Calculate the pH of a buffered solution after the addition of a strong acid or base.
 Perform calculations to predict the pH at any of the four general regions of an acidbase titration curve (prior to titration; before neutralization; at equivalence point; beyond equivalence point) for a strong acidstrong base titration and a weak acidstrong base titration.
VII. Solubility Equilibria
Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts
At the end of this section students should be able to:
 Write the equilibrium expression for an insoluble salt.
 Calculate K_{sp} from solubility data.
 Calculate the solubility of a salt, given its K_{sp} value.
 Understand the common ion effect and how it affects the solubility of some solutes.
 Predict whether a precipitate will form by comparing Q_{sp} with K_{sp}
VIII. Thermodynamics
Internal energy, work, heat; Spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes; Entropy, enthalpy, Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy, and equilibrium constants.
At the end of this section students should be able to:
 Understand what thermodynamics means and to discover the kinds of questions it seeks to answer.
 Understand how thermodynamics deals with the exchange of energy between a system and its surroundings.
 Understand what a spontaneous change is and how everything that happens can be traced to some spontaneous change somewhere.
 Understand what influence energy changes have on the tendency for an event to occur spontaneously.
 Understand the concept of entropy, S, and to see how and entropy increase favors a spontaneous change.
 Understand the relationship between the free energy change and the work that is available from the chemical reaction.
 Manipulate equations and their corresponding free energy values.
IX. Electrochemistry
Galvanic cells, cell potentials and how it relates to free energies, concentrations in galvanic cells, stoichiometry of electrochemical reactions, practical applications of electrochemistry.
At the end of this section students should be able to:
 Describe galvanic/voltaic cells.
 Diagram and label a galvanic cell, indicating anode/cathode, anode solution/cathode solution, flow of electrons, flow of ions from salt bridge.
 Write the halfreactions for the anode and cathode electrodes in a galvanic cell.
 Write the overall balanced equation corresponding to a galvanic cell.
 Calculate the cell potential of a galvanic cell.
 Understand the concept of reduction potential; use reduction potentials to identify oxidizing agents and reducing agents
 Determine spontaneity of redox process based on cell potential.
 Relate cell potential to free energy and equilibrium constant.
Laboratory Schedule
Experiment Title Pages
1 CheckIn & Safety Lecture
2 Titration of Unknown Vinegar Solution 17
3 Titration of Unknown Chloride Solution 815
4 Freezing Point Depression 1626
5 Kinetics of Crystal Violet Bleaching 2745
6 Determination of Equilibrium Constant of 4657
[FeSCN]^{2+} by Spectrophotometry
7 Determination of Ionization Constant (K_{a}) of 5873
a Weak Acid
8 Qualitative Analysis 1 (Group I Cations) 7481
9 Qualitative Analysis 2 (Group II Cations) 8294
10 Qualitative Analysis 3 (Group III Cations) 95105
11 General Unknown 106116
12 General Unknown, cont.
13 General Unknown, cont.
14 Checkout
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